a. Dukkhasacca Pabba (Section on the Noble Truth of Dukkha)
And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of dukkha? Birth note93 is dukkha, ageing is also dukkha, death is also dukkha; sorrow, lamentation, physical pain, mental pain and anguish are also dukkha; to have to associate with those (persons or things) one dislikes is also dukkha; to be separated from those one loves or likes is also dukkha
; wishing for what one cannot get is also dukkha; in short, the five aggregates of clinging are dukkha.note94
And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow (soka)?note95 The sorrow, the act of sorrowing, the sorrowful state of mind, the inward sorrow and the inward overpowering sorrow that arise because of this or that loss (of relatives, or possessions) or this or that painful state that one experiences - this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.
And what, bhikkhus is lamentation (parideva)? The crying and lamenting, the act of crying and lamenting, and the state of crying and lamentation that arises because of this or that loss (of relatives, or possessions) or this or that painful state that one experiences - this bhikkhus, is called lamentation.
Bhikkhus, this is called the Noble Truth of dukkha.